This article aims to review the coherence of the definition of the Masculinity Index, one of the most cited dimensions in cross-cultural management. The study challenges the claims supporting the design, the definition and ultimately the validity of the Masculinity Index that are the basis of it applications in management theory and practice.
The paper is based on the empirical analysis of the MAS index utilizing a standard quantitative approach. The authors ran cross-section regressions with control variables for the applications of the index that could be quantified: According to Hofstede, high MAS Index countries have relatively higher defence spending, a relatively lower aid spending on poor countries, less gender equality at work and have higher share of women teaching small children and a lower share of women teaching at universities.
The analysis did not validate those claims and therefore the hypothesis of the Masculinity index. The authors provide empirical proof of the lack of validity of the MAS index to compare national cultures, recommend abandoning the MAS index and instead using alternative instruments of gender equalitarianism.